Episode 32 Part 1: Pain in the Pediatric ED – an Interprofessional Approach

Pain, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Procedures

This is part 1 of a 2 part series. Please be sure to listen to part 2!

In this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Dr. Daniel Tsze and Child Life Specialist Hilary Woodward about how to approach pain in the pediatric patient. This could be pain from the presenting complaint or from the procedure being performed. The discussion focusses primarily on the non-pharmacologic techniques that have been shown to improve the experience for patients, caregivers, and care providers.

Dan and Hilary are both part of the PECARN (Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) and this episode is published in partnership with the PECARN Dissemination Working Group.

Guests

Hilary Woodward MS, CCLS -New York-Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital at Columbia University Medical Center

Daniel Tsze MD, MPH – Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Emergency Medicine), New York-Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital at Columbia University Medical Center

Show Notes
  1. Techniques – non pharmacologic
    1. Environment – Remember that the environment can have a huge impact not he patient! (I.e. colors on the walls, pictures/posters, cartoons). The attitude and approach from the caregivers and clinical providers also contributes.
    2. Before procedure
      1. Opportunities for patient to interact (safely) with procedure materials. Can use either (or both) of the techniques below:
        1. Medical play – free play with safe procedure materials, possibly with some child-centered narration as patient manipulates what is provided (i.e. “you’re putting that on the doll’s arm”); helps with desensitization & child-directed understanding (figuring out organically how the materials work) and increases patient’s opportunities for control. 
        2. Developmentally appropriate teaching – practice procedure on stuffed animal/doll etc., while explaining what will happen and clarifying patient’s questions/misconceptions as needed. May consider hand-over-hand techniques to give patients some knowledge/experience with sharps (if caregiver consent provided, safety guidelines in place, patient assessed by clinician to be an appropriate candidate developmentally and in regards to temperament)
      2. Explanation of what you are going to do. How much do you tell a child and how does this change based on 
        1. Can start with “small spoonfuls” of info, focusing on what the patient’s sensory experience will likely be (i.e. how will it feel, what will they see/smell/taste; “some kids say it’s like _______”). Monitor verbal/non-verbal cues to guide when/if/how to share more
        2. Patient and caregiver input is vital – ask what they would like to know more about, and offer choices of coping techniques (consider needs of self-identified “attenders” vs. “distractors”)
      3. Don’t forget the basis like splinting, ice packs, which also have analgesic effects
      4. Positioning for comfort
        1. Chest to chest in a chair for scalp lacs, procedures on extremities
          1. Parent sitting in a chair works well – make sure that patient’s feet are dangling so that they don’t have leverage to push up
          2. Make sure to brace the extremity you are working with (rest extremity on the bed or on a bedside table, ideally at close to a 90 degree angle)
          3. Consider asking a “helper” to hold head or extremity steady
        2. Patient’s back against parent’s chest for facial lacs, procedures on extremities
          1. Have parent lay on stretcher with their whole body (feet included) on the bed; child lays or sits between parent’s legs, with their bottom on the stretcher (NOT on parent’s lap) – then parent can cross their legs over child’s legs
          2. As with chest-to-chest, make sure to use appropriate bracing and a “helper” as needed for steadying
      5. Do you talk with parents about their role in comforting their child, not showing distress etc? 
        1. Strengths-based approach: Reinforce helpful caregiver behaviors, while validating the stress of the situation. “The way you let your child know you will be there for him, and the way you engaged him in telling his favorite story – that was so helpful! It really makes a positive difference when parents show calm and help engage their child. I know you might not be feeling as calm on the inside, but you’re really helping us create a better experience for your son. Thank you!”
        2. If it’s a more challenging scenario, and you are having difficulty identifying a strength, step into the conversation piece by piece. Start with validating: “I can see how upsetting this is for you, and it makes complete sense to feel upset in this situation.” Then read the verbal & non-verbal cues – are you building effective rapport? If so, you might be able to very gently make your big ask (and it can help to label it as such): “I’ve been thinking about how we can help make this experience as smooth as possible for your daughter. I have some ideas, and I know this might be a big ask, but I’m hoping you can help me?” If receptive: “I’m noticing that your daughter seems more tearful & distressed when she sees you get upset. Maybe you could help us distract her? Sometimes, helping distract their child helps parents feel a little better, too.” And when the procedure is over, make sure to validate the parent’s effort and be specific about what went well to both parent & child.
    3. During Procedure
      1. Distraction
        1. Both “techy” (iPad, virtual reality) and “non-techy” (toys, games, songs, conversation, deep breathing, etc.)
      2. “Blinder” and other visual barriers
        1. Any specific dos and dont’s with these?
          1. Generally not worthwhile for kids who become more agitated by the blinder/barrier itself (may include toddlers, patients with sensory challengers, patients who are “attenders” and better able to cope/feel in control when they can see everything that is going on). Patient choice & caregiver input are key.
      3. Parent/family presence? Helpful or harmful?
        1. From Hilary – I would say 98% of the time helpful, but it can be important to give parents the choice whether to be present and/or involved. (This discussion might connect well with the point above about whether or not to talk with parents/caregivers about their role in comforting their child.)
References
  1. Tsze DS, Woodward HA. The “Facemask Blinder”: A Technique for Optimizing Anxiolysis in Children Undergoing Facial Laceration Repair. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2019;35(7):e124-e126. doi:10.1097/PEC.0000000000000990
  2. Kennedy RM, Luhmann JD. The “ouchless emergency department”. Getting closer: advances in decreasing distress during painful procedures in the emergency department. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999;46(6):1215-viii. doi:10.1016/s0031-3955(05)70184-x
  3. Fein JA, Zempsky WT, Cravero JP; Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine; American Academy of Pediatrics. Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1391-e1405. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2536
  4. Cohen LL. Behavioral approaches to anxiety and pain management for pediatric venous access. Pediatrics. 2008;122 Suppl 3:S134-S139. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1055f
  5. Sinha M, Christopher NC, Fenn R, Reeves L. Evaluation of nonpharmacologic methods of pain and anxiety management for laceration repair in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics. 2006;117(4):1162-1168. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1100
Additional resources
  1. Koller D, Goldman RD. Distraction techniques for children undergoing procedures: A critical review of pediatric research. J Pediatr Nurs. 2012;27(6):652-681. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2011.08.001
  2. Stephens BK, Barkey ME, Hall HR. Techniques to comfort children during stressful procedures. Accid Emerg Nurs. 1999;7(4):226-236. doi:10.1016/s0965-2302(99)80055-1

Episode 29: AHA Pediatric Post Cardiac Arrest Scientific Statement with Alexis Topjian

Cardiac Arrest, Critical Care, Emergency Medicine, Pediatric Emergency Medicine

On this episode, host Jason Woods talks with Alexis Topjian about the 2019 “AHA Pediatric Post–Cardiac Arrest Care Scientific Statement.” Dr. Topjian is the first author on the statement, which is the first pediatric post arrest care statement from the AHA (previously children had primarily been discussed as a special population within a primarily adult guideline). The document itself is long, but contains a large amount of useful information for bedside providers, health care administrators, and researchers.


Guests

Alexis Topjian MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

References

  1. Topjian AA, de Caen A, Wainwright MS, et al. Pediatric Post-Cardiac Arrest Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019;140(6):e194-e233. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000697

Additional Resources

  1. Previous Little Big Med podcast with Dr. Topjian on post arrest hypotension in children

Episode 23: Nephritis

Education, Emergency Medicine, Medical Education, Nephrology, Pediatric Emergency Medicine

What is it and why are there so many names?

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Dr. Danielle Soranno, pediatric nephrologist, about nephritis in children. What is it, why are the terms so confusing, how do we diagnosis it, and when should we involve a nephrologist? Did the nephrologists invent terminology just to confuse us?

Guests

Danielle Soranno MD,  Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Bioengineering & Medicine
University of Colorado and Children’s Hospital Colorado

References

  1. Floege J, Amann K. Primary glomerulonephritides. Lancet. 2016 May;387:2036-2048.
  2. Brogan P, Eleftheriou D. Vasculitis update: pathogenesis and biomarkers. Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 Feb;33:187-198.
  3. Chadban SJ, Atkins RC. Glomerulonephritis. Lancet. 2005 May;365:1797-1806.

Episode 20: HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

Adolescent Medicine, Emergency Medicine, HIV, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Sexual Health

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Martin Walker (Director of HIV Programs for Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains) and Moises Munoz (Prevention Services Manager Children’s Hospital Immunodeficiency Program, Children’s Hospital Colorado) about pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP).

The highlights:

  • The only FDA approved PrEP regimen the combination product of emtricitabine/tenofovir (brand name Truvada)
  • It was approved in 2012 for PrEP
  • Typical dosing is one pill (200/300) once per day, for patients > 35 kg (regardless of age)
  • Prior to the start of PrEP, counseling and labs are suggested
    • Labs required before the start of PrEP include baseline creatinine and UA, negative studies for HIV and Hepatitis, pregnancy if applicable, and other STIs (all of these are included in ongoing monitoring as well)
    • Counseling should include discussion of risk factors, compliance, required testing, need for continued protection from other STIs
    • Generally not recommended to use in patients with GFR < 60
  • From the start of use, different tissues require different amounts of time to reach effective concentrations. There is not clear data on this but Martin suggests 7 days for receptive anal intercourse and 21 days for receptive vaginal intercourse.
  • Some studies suggest that for penile-anal intercourse, as few as 4 doses per week may be effective.
  • See below for training resources

Guests

Martin Walker – Director of HIV Programs for Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains

Moises Munoz – Prevention Services Manager Children’s Hospital Immunodeficiency Program, Children’s Hospital Colorado

Important Resources

References

  1. Hosek S, Rudy B, Landovitz R, et. al. “An HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Demonstration Project and Safety Study for Young MSM”. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jan 1; 74(1): 21–29. PMID: 27632233
  2. Grant RM, Anderson PL, McMahan V, et al. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2014; 14:820. PMID: 25065857.
  3. Krakower DS, Mayer KH. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: current status, future opportunities and challenges. Drugs 2015; 75:243. PMID: 25673022.
  4. Anderson PL, Glidden DV, Liu A, et al. Emtricitabine-tenofovir concentrations and pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy in men who have sex with men. Sci Transl Med 2012; 4:151. PMID: 22972843.
  5. Seifert SM, Glidden DV, Meditz AL, et al. Dose response for starting and stopping HIV preexposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60:804. PMID: 25409469
  6. Anderson PL, Meditz A, Zheng JH. Cellular pharmacology of TFV and FTC in blood, rectal, and cervical cells from HIV- volunteers. Presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2012.

Episode 18b: Anti-trafficking and the role of the ED

Adolescent Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Sexual Health, Trafficking

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Dr. Makini Chisolm-Straker, an ED physician in New York who is also a founder of HEAL Trafficking, an organization that works to fight human traffickingi n all forms. This is part 2 of a 2 part discussion. The highlights:

  1. Definition of trafficking
    1. recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, and/or obtaining of a person
    2. By the use of force, fraud, and/or coercion
    3. For purposes of labor and/or sexual exploitation
  2. Numbers and general info
    1. Overall labor trafficking is most common
    2. Under age 18 “survival” sex considered victim of trafficking
    3. US reports 15-50k brought to US each year for trafficking, but tn 2014, US DOS reported 21,000 calls to its trafficking hotline, so it is likely far under-reported in the official numbers.
    4. On a 2016 survey of victims of trafficking, 55% had seen an ED/UC while trafficked
  3. There is no comprehensive trafficking screening tool in existence
    1. The Greenbaum tool is only for use in english speaking patients ages 13-17 and evaluates for risk of sex trafficking
  4. Quotes from Makini’s published work that I loved
    1. It is important NOT to employ the Greenbaum Tool until the clinician has had a frank conversation about mandated reporting with the patient. Too often clinicians envision trafficking as a crime from which which victims must be rescued or saved. That is not our job. And it does not work. Victims that are unwillingly rescued often end up back in exploitation circumstances. Many young people in trafficking situations do not identify as victims and some feel a strong sense of agency: others expect to be criminalized by authority figures because that has been their experience.
    2. We must apply the principles learned from because of IPV work. Survivors know more about their situation and needs than we do. Our rescue actions, intended with love, often have untoward unintended consequences for those we seek to serve.

Guests

Makini Chisolm-Straker MD, Assistant Professor of Emergendy Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System

Other Resources

  1. HEAL Trafficking
  2. Training for providers that Dr. Chisolm-Straker mentioned
  3. Human trafficking hotline:
    1. Phone: 1-888-373-7888
    2. SMS:233733 text HELP or INFO
    3. Humantraffickinghotline.org
  4. HumantraffickingED.com

References

1.     Greenbaum VJ, Livings MS, Lai BS et al. Evaluation of a Tool to Identify Child Sex Trafficking Victims in Multiple Healthcare Settings. Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;63(6):745–52. 

2.     Greenbaum VJ, Dodd M, McCracken C. A Short Screening Tool to Identify Victims of Child Sex Trafficking in the Health Care Setting. Pediatric Emergency Care 2018;34(1):33–7. 

3.     Chisolm Straker M, Baldwin S, Gaïgbé-Togbé B, Ndukwe N, Johnson PN, Richardson LD. Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2016;27(3):1220–33. 

4.     Shandro J, Chilsom-Straker M, Duber HC et al. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. YMEM 2016;68(4):501–1. 

5.     Chisolm Straker M. Measured steps: evidence‐based anti‐trafficking efforts in the E.D. Acad Emerg Med 2018.  doi: 10.1111/acem.13552 

Episode 18a: Anti-trafficking and the role of the ED

Adolescent Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Trafficking, Uncategorized

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Dr. Makini Chisolm-Straker, an ED physician in New York who is also a founder of HEAL Trafficking, an organization that works to fight human traffickingi n all forms. This is part 1 of a 2 part discussion. The highlights:

  1. Definition of trafficking
    1. recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, and/or obtaining of a person
    2. By the use of force, fraud, and/or coercion
    3. For purposes of labor and/or sexual exploitation
  2. Numbers and general info
    1. Overall labor trafficking is most common
    2. Under age 18 “survival” sex considered victim of trafficking
    3. US reports 15-50k brought to US each year for trafficking, but tn 2014, US DOS reported 21,000 calls to its trafficking hotline, so it is likely far under-reported in the official numbers.
    4. On a 2016 survey of victims of trafficking, 55% had seen an ED/UC while trafficked
  3. There is no comprehensive trafficking screening tool in existence
    1. The Greenbaum tool is only for use in english speaking patients ages 13-17 and evaluates for risk of sex trafficking
  4. Quotes from Makini’s published work that I loved
    1. It is important NOT to employ the Greenbaum Tool until the clinician has had a frank conversation about mandated reporting with the patient. Too often clinicians envision trafficking as a crime from which which victims must be rescued or saved. That is not our job. And it does not work. Victims that are unwillingly rescued often end up back in exploitation circumstances. Many young people in trafficking situations do not identify as victims and some feel a strong sense of agency: others expect to be criminalized by authority figures because that has been their experience.
    2. We must apply the principles learned from because of IPV work. Survivors know more about their situation and needs than we do. Our rescue actions, intended with love, often have untoward unintended consequences for those we seek to serve.

Guests

Makini Chisolm-Straker MD, Assistant Professor of Emergendy Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System

Other Resources

  1. HEAL Trafficking
  2. Training for providers that Dr. Chisolm-Straker mentioned
  3. Human trafficking hotline:
    1. Phone: 1-888-373-7888
    2. SMS:233733 text HELP or INFO
    3. Humantraffickinghotline.org
  4. HumantraffickingED.com

References

1.     Greenbaum VJ, Livings MS, Lai BS et al. Evaluation of a Tool to Identify Child Sex Trafficking Victims in Multiple Healthcare Settings. Journal of Adolescent Health 2018;63(6):745–52. 

2.     Greenbaum VJ, Dodd M, McCracken C. A Short Screening Tool to Identify Victims of Child Sex Trafficking in the Health Care Setting. Pediatric Emergency Care 2018;34(1):33–7. 

3.     Chisolm Straker M, Baldwin S, Gaïgbé-Togbé B, Ndukwe N, Johnson PN, Richardson LD. Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2016;27(3):1220–33. 

4.     Shandro J, Chilsom-Straker M, Duber HC et al. Human Trafficking: A Guide to Identification and Approach for the Emergency Physician. YMEM 2016;68(4):501–1. 

5.     Chisolm Straker M. Measured steps: evidence‐based anti‐trafficking efforts in the E.D. Acad Emerg Med 2018.  doi: 10.1111/acem.13552 

Episode 17: Teeny Weeny Problems – Pediatric Urology

Emergency Medicine, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Urology

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Dr. Tanya Davis, pediatric urologist and all around superstar, about common pediatric urology problems that present to the emergency department. The highlights:

  1. Testicular torsion is an emergency, and ultrasound should be performed when this is suspected. If the symptoms are highly suggestive call urology even with a normal ultrasound
  2. It is suggested that urology is contacted before performing any repair of a laceration that is more than superficial.
  3. Pediatric patients that develop epididymitis in the absence of sexual activity should be referred to urology, as this is unusual and may indicate an anatomic abnormality.
  4. Dr. Davis feels that any patient with complex urogenital anatomy, indwelling catheters, or a surgically created catheterizable tract should NOT have antibiotics started for UTI without contacting their primary urologist.

Guests

Tanya Davis MD, Clinical Instructor, Department of Urology, Children’s National Health System

Pediatric Urologist, Mid-Atlantic Permanente Medical Group

Episode 15a: Nephrology Overview with Danielle Sorrano

Education, Emergency Medicine, Nephrology, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Podcast, Uncategorized

On this episode, host Jason Woods tries to tackle all things renal. This is part 1 of a discussion with Dr. Danielle Soranno, who gives an overview of how she approaches the kidney and what things we need to know in general. She talks about common renal issues in the emergency department and what information she wants to hear when called for a consult

Part 2 will post later this week and digs into some specific illnesses such as HUS, hyperkalemia, and end-stage renal disease.

Guests

Danielle Soranno MD,  Assistant Professor, Pediatrics, Bioengineering & Medicine
University of Colorado and Children’s Hospital Colorado

Important Information

  1. Fab Four – FABU
    1. Function
    2. Anatomy
    3. Blood Pressure
    4. Urine

Episode 13: Adolescent Sexual Health and Education

Adolescent Medicine, Medical Education, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Podcast, Sexual Health

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks to Daniela Fellman and Alison Macklin, leaders from the Responsible Sex Education Institute, about a topic that can sometimes be difficult for patients, parents, and care providers…sex! Sexual and reproductive health education is hugely important and frequently politicized. Both interviewees are leading the way when it comes to education and outreach programs in the field of sex education. We talk about a variety of resources which are listed below, as well as get a sneak peek at two books which are being published soon.

Important Links

  1. Responsible Sex Education Institute
  2. ICYC Instagram
  3. ICYC – In Case You’re Curious
  4. Making Sense of “It” by Alison Macklin (available for pre-order now!)

Additional Resources

  1. Glsen
  2. Scarleteen
  3. Healthy Teen Network
  4. Advocates for Youth
  5. Amaze

Guests

Alison Macklin – Vice President of Education and Innovation, Responsive Sex Education, Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains

Daniela Fellman – Program Manager of Texting Initiatives, Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains

 

Episode 12: High Altitude Illness with Elaine Reno

Education, Emergency Medicine, Medical Education, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Podcast, Uncategorized, Wilderness Medicine

On this episode, host Jason Woods speaks with Dr. Elaine Reno, an emergency medicine physician who is also a wilderness medicine expert, about high altitude illness in pediatrics. We focus on risk factors, identification of illness, and recommendations for initial treatment.

Important points

  1. Significant altitude illness is rare below 8000 feet
  2. Pre-verbal children DO experience high altitude illness but can be more difficult to diagnose given the difficulty in communication.
  3. Dr. Reno strongly prefers slow acclimatization for children, rather than prophylactic medication.

Point of Care Resources

  1. Wilderness Medical Society
  2. Colorado Wilderness Medicine
  3. Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Score
  4. Children’s Lake Louise Score

Guests

Elaine Reno MD – Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Section of Wilderness and Environmental Medicine